• Robert Greenlee PhD, MPH

  • Senior Research Scientist


    • Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health
    • 1000 North Oak Avenue ML2 Marshfield, WI 54449

Education


1987:
BS, Biology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA
1989:
MPH, General Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI
2000:
PhD, Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA

Work Experience


1988 to 1988:
Capital Semester Epidemiology Intern, Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, PA
1989 to 1991:
Epidemiologist, Western Michigan Associated Health Departments, White Cloud, MI
1991 to 1995:
Epidemiologist/Communicable Disease Supervisor, Kent County Health Department, Grand Rapids, MI
1996 to 1997:
Research Assistant, Metropolitan Atlanta SEER Cancer Registry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
1997 to 1997:
Summer Surveillance Intern, Welsh Cancer Surveillance and Intelligence Unit, Cardiff, Wales, UK
1999 to 2000:
Program Director, Cancer Surveillance, American Cancer Society, National Home Office, Atlanta, GA
2000 to 2004:
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
2000 to 2005:
Staff Scientist, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, a Division of Marshfield Clinic Inc. , Marshfield, WI
2004 to 2009:
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI
2005 to 2011:
Associate Research Scientist, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, a Division of Marshfield Clinic Inc. , Marshfield, WI
2011 to 2013:
Contributing Faculty, Instructor/University Research Reviewer, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN
2011 to 2017:
Research Scientist (tenured), Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, a Division of Marshfield Clinic Inc. , Marshfield, WI
2009 to Present:
Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI
2017 to Present:
Senior Research Scientist, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, a Division of Marshfield Clinic Inc. , Marshfield, WI

Honors & Awards


2011:
Gwen D. Sebold Research Fellowship
Summer Research Fund Award
Melanoma Seed Grant Program, Competitive Grant Award
Doctoral Fellowship
University of Michigan School of Public Health Scholarship
Brumbaugh Senior Science Prize
Charles C. Ellis Memorial Scholarship
Dr. C. Lester Hess Memorial Scholarship
National Honor Society
Beta Beta Beta, National Honor Society of Biology
Alumni Scholarship
Freshman Chemistry Prize

Statement


Dr. Greenlee is a tenured senior research scientist and epidemiologist in CCEPH with primary interests in the clinical epidemiology of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and in the quality, effectiveness, and outcomes of health care. He is an adjunct professor in the Department of Population Health Sciences at the University of Wisconsin (UW) School of Medicine and Public Health, and has several roles within the UW Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (ICTR). Dr. Greenlee earned a PhD in Epidemiology from Emory University in Atlanta, Ga, and joined MCRI in 2000 as a staff scientist supporting the development, maintenance, and collaborative research using the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA). Previously Dr. Greenlee was Program Director for Cancer Surveillance at the American Cancer Society’s National Office, following field internships at the Georgia Center for Cancer Statistics and the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit in Cardiff, Wales, U.K.. With a Master of Public Health degree from the University of Michigan, he also worked for 6 years as a county epidemiologist in Michigan’s local public health system. In 2011, Dr. Greenlee received the Gwen D. Sebold Research Fellowship Award for Outstanding Researcher at Marshfield Clinic.

Research Interests


Cancer surveillance and early detection
Cancer care delivery research
Clinical epidemiology of cancer and cardiovascular diseases
Sociodemographic disparities in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diseases
Clinical effectiveness research
Health services/health care quality and outcomes

Professional Societies


Society for Epidemiologic Research, Member
American College of Epidemiology, Member
American Society of Preventive Oncology, Member

Committees


Alliance Oncology - ACS Cancer Care Delivery Research Committee, Member
NRG - Cancer Care Delivery Committee, Member
Wake Forest - Cancer Care Delivery Committee, Member
ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Care Delivery Committee, Member

Select Publications


  • Paterson I, Greenlee RT, Adams Jones D. (1999). Thyroid cancer in Wales 1985-1996: a cancer registry-based study. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 11(4):245-251.
    PubMed ID: 10473721
  • Carlson GW, Murray DR, Greenlee RT, Alazraki N, Fry-Spray C, Poole R,...Vansant J. (2000 March). Management of malignant melanoma of the head and neck using dynamic lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 126(3):433-437.
    PubMed ID: 10722024
  • Greenlee RT, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA. (2000 January). Cancer Statistics, 2000. CA Cancer J Clin. 50(1):7-33.
    PubMed ID: 10735013
  • Murray DR, Carlson GW, Greenlee RT, Alazraki N, Fry-Spray C, Hestley A,...Vansant J. (2000 August). Surgical management of malignant melanoma using dynamic lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy: the Emory experience. Am Surg. 66(8):763-767.
    PubMed ID: 10966037
  • Greenlee RT, Hill-Harmon MB, Murray T, Thun MJ. (2001 January). Cancer Statistics, 2001. CA Cancer J Clin. 51(1):15-36.
    PubMed ID: 11577478
  • Wu XC, Chen VW, Steele B, Ruiz B, Fulton J, Liu LH,...Greenlee RT. (2001 November). Subsite-specific incidence rates and stage of disease in colorectal cancer by race, gender, and age group in the United States, 1992-1997. CANCER. 92(10):2547-2552.
    PubMed ID: 11745188
  • Greenlee RT, Naleway AL, Vidaillet HJ. (2002 July). Incidence of myocardial infarction in a general population: The Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. WMJ. 101(7):46-52.
    PubMed ID: 12426920
  • Naleway AL, Belongia EA, Kazmierczak JJ, Greenlee RT, Davis JP. (2002 June). Lyme disease incidence in Wisconsin: a comparison of state-reported rates and rates from a population-based cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 155(12):1120-1127.
    PubMed ID: 12048226
  • McCarty CA, Chyou P, Greenlee RT, McCarty DJ, Gunderson PD, Reding DJ. (2003 May). Differences in preventive screening rates in Wisconsin farm and non-farm resident women. WMJ. 102(5):22-26.
    PubMed ID: 14621927
  • Naleway AL, Belongia EA, Greenlee RT, Kieke BA, Chen RT, Shay DK. (2003 July). Eczematous skin disease and recall of past diagnoses: implications for smallpox vaccination. Ann Intern Med. 139(1):1-7.
    PubMed ID: 12834312
  • Greenlee RT. (2003 October). Measuring disease frequency in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA). Clin Med Res. 1(4):273-280.
    PubMed ID: 15931320
  • Belongia EA, Chyou P, Greenlee RT, Perez-Perez G, Bibb WF, Devries EO. (2003 September). Diarrhea incidence and farm-related risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni antibodies among rural children. J Infect Dis. 187(9):1460-1468.
    PubMed ID: 12717628
  • Wingo PA, Cardinez CJ, Landis SH, Greenlee RT, Ries LA G, Anderson RN, Thun MJ. (2003 June). Long-term trends in cancer mortality in the United States, 1930-1998. CANCER. 97(12 Suppl):3133-3275.
    PubMed ID: 12784323
  • Kirkhorn SR, Greenlee RT, Reeser JC. (2003). The epidemiology of agriculture-related osteoarthritis and its impact upon occupational disability. WMJ. 102(7):38-44.
    PubMed ID: 14711023
  • Coleman LA, Naleway AL, Davis ME, Greenlee RT, Wilson DA, McCarty DJ. (2005). Birth weight and systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 14(7):526-528.
  • Naleway AL, Davis ME, Greenlee RT, Wilson DA, McCarty DJ. (2005). Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in rural Wisconsin. Lupus. 14(10):862-866.
    PubMed ID: 16302684
  • Greenlee RT, Vidaillet HJ. (2005 January). Recent progress in the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation. Curr Opin Cardiol. 20(1):7-14.
    PubMed ID: 15596953
  • Vidaillet HJ, Greenlee RT. (2005 January). Rate control versus rhythm control. Curr Opin Cardiol. 20(1):15-20.
    PubMed ID: 15596954
  • Greenlee RT, Zentner JL, Kieke BA, Elliott JL, Marlenga BL. (2005 May). Farm health surveillance in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area: a pilot study. J Agric Saf Health. 11(2):211-218.
    PubMed ID: 15931947
  • Giampietro PF, Greenlee RT, McPherson EW, Benetti LL, Berg RL, Wagner SF. (2006 August). Acute health events in adult patients with genetic disorders: the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. Genet Med. 8(8):474-490.
    PubMed ID: 16912579
  • Naleway AL, Greenlee RT, Melski JW. (2006 August). Characteristics of diagnosed polymorphous light eruption. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 22(4):205-207.
    PubMed ID: 16869870
  • Pinsky PF, Crawford ED, Kramer BS, Andriole GL, Gelmann EP, Grubb RL,...Gohagan JK [including Greenlee RT.] (2007 April). Repeat prostate biopsy in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. BJU Int. 99(4):775-779.
    PubMed ID: 17223921
  • Pinsky PF, Andriole G, Crawford ED, Chia D, Kramer BS, Grubb RL,...Gohagan JK [including Greenlee RT.] (2007 April). Prostate-specific antigen velocity and prostate cancer gleason grade and stage. CANCER. 109(8):1689-1695.
    PubMed ID: 17330856
  • Rahman M, Kieke BA, Vandermause MF, Mitchell PD, Greenlee RT, Belongia EA. (2007 August). Performance of Directigen flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent assay for detection of influenza infection during the 2004-2005 season. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 58(4):413-418.
    PubMed ID: 17509800
  • Sharma PP, Greenlee RT, Anderson KP, Chyou P, Osorio HJ, Smith PN,...Vidaillet HJ [including Hayes JJ.] (2007 September). Prevalence and mortality of patients with myocardial infarction and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in a defined community: Relation to the second multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 19(3):157-164.
    PubMed ID: 17805953
  • Go AS, Magid DJ, Wells B, Sung SHee, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Greenlee RT,...Gurwitz JH. (2008 November). The Cardiovascular Research Network: A New Paradigm for Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes Research. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 1 :138-147.
  • Greenlee RT, Chyou P, Kieke AL, Naik Y, Kirkhorn SR. (2008 December). Prevalence of Asthma in a General Population Cohort of Farm Children: Comparison of Estimates Based on Parental Report and Medical Record Review. Journal of Agromedicine. 13(4):225-231.
    PubMed ID: 19064414
  • Greenlee RT, Coleman LA, Nelson AF, Selby JV. (2008 December). Partnerships in translation: advancing research and clinical care. The 14th Annual HMO Research Network Conference, April 13-16, 2008, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clin Med Res. 6(3-4):109-112.
    PubMed ID: 19325174
  • Coleman LA, Kottke TE, Rank B, Reding DJ, Selna M, Isham GJ,...Greenlee RT. (2008 December). Partnering care delivery and research to optimize health. Clin Med Res. 6(3-4):113-118.
    PubMed ID: 19325175
  • Musana KA, Resnick JM, Torbey CF, Mukesh BNanjan, Greenlee RT. (2008 March). Barrett's esophagus: incidence and prevalence estimates in a rural mid-western population. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 103(3):516-24.
    PubMed ID: 17970839
  • Grubb RL, Pinsky P, Greenlee RT, Izmirlian G, Miller AB, Hickey TP,...Andriole G [including Reding DJ.] (2008 December). Prostate cancer screening in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial: update on findings from the initial four rounds of screening in a randomized trial. BJU INTERNATIONAL. 102(11):1524-1530.
    PubMed ID: 19035857
  • Rahman M, Bright RA, Kieke BA, Greenlee RT, Vandermause MF, Balish A,...Donahue JG [including Belongia EA.] (2008 January). Adamantane-resistant influenza infection during the 2004-05 season. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 14(1):173-176.
    PubMed ID: 18258102
  • Greenlee RT, Howe HL. (2009 August). County-level poverty and distant stage cancer in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 20(6):989-1000.
    PubMed ID: 19199061
  • Belongia EA, Kieke BA, Donahue JG, Greenlee RT, Balish A, Foust A,...Marshfield Influenza Study Group. (2009 January). Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006-2007 season. J Infect Dis. 199(2):159-67.
    PubMed ID: 19086915
  • Onitilo AA, Engel JM, Greenlee RT, Mukesh BNanjan. (2009 June). Breast Cancer Subtypes Based on ER/PR and Her2 Expression: Comparison of Clinicopathologic Features and Survival. Clin Med Res. 7(1-2):4-13.
    PubMed ID: 19251585
  • Partridge E, Kreimer AR, Greenlee RT, Williams C, Xu JL, Church TR,...for the PLCO Project Team. (2009 April). Results from four rounds of ovarian cancer screening in a randomized trial. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 113(4):775-82.
    PubMed ID: 19305319
  • Greenlee RT, Goodman MT, Lynch CF, Platz CE, Havener LA, Howe HL. (2010 January). The occurrence of rare cancers in U.S. adults, 1995-2004. Public Health Rep. 125(1):28-43.
    PubMed ID: 20402194
  • Mareedu RK, Abdalrahman IB, Dharmashankar KC, Granada JF, Chyou P, Sharma PP,...Vidaillet HJ [including Smith PN, Hayes JJ, Greenlee RT.] (2010 March). Atrial flutter versus atrial fibrillation in a general population: differences in comorbidities associated with their respective onset. Clinical Medicine & Research. 8(1):1-6.
    PubMed ID: 19920163
  • Greenlee RT, Kessel B, Riley TL, Ragard LR, Hartge P, Buys SS,...Reding DJ. (2010 April). Prevalence, incidence, and natural history of simple ovarian cysts among women >55 years old in a large cancer screening trial. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 202(4):373.e1-9.
    PubMed ID: 20096820
  • Schonfeld SJ, Pee D, Greenlee RT, Hartge P, Lacey JV, Park Y,...Pfeiffer RM. (2010 May). Effect of changing breast cancer incidence rates on the calibration of the Gail model. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 28(14):2411-7.
    PubMed ID: 20368565
  • Buys SS, Partridge E, Black A, Johnson CC, Lamerato L, Isaacs C,...PLCO Project Team [including Reding DJ, Greenlee RT.] (2011 June). Effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 305(22):2295-303.
    PubMed ID: 21642681
  • Penniston KL, McLaren ID, Greenlee RT, Nakada SY. (2011 May). Urolithiasis in a rural Wisconsin population From 1992 to 2008: narrowing of the male-to-female ratio. J Urol. 185(5):1731-6.
    PubMed ID: 21420112
  • Schonfeld SJ, Pfeiffer RM, Lacey JV, Berrington de González A, Doody MM, Greenlee RT,...Visvanathan K. (2011 March). Hormone-related risk factors and postmenopausal breast cancer among nulliparous versus parous women: An aggregated study. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 173(5):509-17.
    PubMed ID: 21266505
  • Masoudi FA, Go AS, Magid DJ, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Doris J, Fiocchi F,...Greenlee RT [including Garcia-Montilla RJ, Hayes JJ, Miller AW, Multerer DS, Sharma PP, Suits ML, Vidaillet HJ.] (2012 December). Longitudinal study of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: methods and clinical characteristics of patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention in contemporary practice. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 5(6):e78-85.
    PubMed ID: 23170006
  • VanWormer JJ, Greenlee RT, McBride P, Peppard P, Malecki K, Che J, Nieto J. (2012 September). Aspirin for primary prevention of CVD: Are the right people using it? JOURNAL OF FAMILY PRACTICE. 61(9):525-32.
    PubMed ID: 23000660
  • Smith-Bindman R, Miglioretti D, Johnson E, Lee C, Feigelson HS, Flynn M,...Williams A [including Greenlee RT, Kruger RL.] (2012 June). Use of diagnostic imaging studies and associated radiation exposure for patients enrolled in large integrated health care systems, 1996-2010. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 307(22):2400-9.
    PubMed ID: 22692172
  • Catlett A, Greenlee RT. (2013 June). A retrospective comparison of dental hygiene supervision changes from 2001 to 2011. J Dent Hyg. 87(3):110-7.
    PubMed ID: 23986327
  • VanWormer JJ, Acharya A, Greenlee RT, Nieto F. (2013 August). Oral hygiene and cardiometabolic disease risk in the survey of the health of Wisconsin. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 41(4):374-84.
    PubMed ID: 23106415
  • Miglioretti D, Johnson E, Williams A, Greenlee RT, Weinmann S, Solberg L,...Smith-Bindman R. (2013 August). The use of computed tomography in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and estimated cancer risk. JAMA Pediatr. 67(8):700-707.
    PubMed ID: 23754213
  • Drahos J, VanWormer JJ, Greenlee RT, Landgren O, Koshiol J. (2013 May). Accuracy of ICD-9-CM codes in identifying infections of pneumonia and herpes simplex virus in administrative data. ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 23(5):291-3.
    PubMed ID: 23522903
  • Doubeni C, Weinmann S, Adams K, Kamineni A, Buist DS, Ash A,...Weiss N [including Greenlee RT.] (2013 March). Screening colonoscopy and risk for incident late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis in average-risk adults: a nested case-control study. ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE. 158(5 Pt 1):312-20.
    PubMed ID: 23460054
  • Schonfeld SJ, Hartge P, Pfeiffer RM, Freedman D, Greenlee RT, Linet M,...Lacey JV. (2013 April). An aggregated analysis of hormonal factors and endometrial cancer risk by parity. CANCER. 119(7):1393-401.
    PubMed ID: 23280123
  • Peterson PN, Varosy P, Heidenreich PA, Wang Y, Dewland T, Curtis JP,...Masoudi FA [including Greenlee RT.] (2013 May). Association of single- vs dual-chamber ICDs with mortality, readmissions, and complications among patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 309(19):2025-34.
    PubMed ID: 23677314
  • Matlock D, Groeneveld P, Sidney S, Shetterly S, Goodrich G, Glenn K,...Magid DJ [including Greenlee RT.] (2013 July). Geographic variation in cardiovascular procedure use among Medicare fee-for-service vs Medicare Advantage beneficiaries. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 310(2):155-62.
    PubMed ID: 23839749
  • Partridge E, Greenlee RT, Riley TL, Commins J, Ragard LR, Xu JL,...Fouad MN. (2013 January). Assessing the risk of ovarian malignancy in asymptomatic women with abnormal CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasound scans in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian screening trial. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 121(1):25-31.
    PubMed ID: 23262924
  • Pfeiffer RM, Park Y, Kreimer AR, Lacey JV, Pee D, Greenlee RT,...Hartge P. (2013 July). Risk Prediction for Breast, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer in White Women Aged 50 y or Older: Derivation and Validation from Population-Based Cohort Studies. PLOS MEDICINE. 10(7):e1001492.
    PubMed ID: 23935463
  • Borne RT, Peterson PN, Greenlee RT, Heidenreich PA, Wang Y, Curtis JP,...Masoudi FA. (2014 September). Temporal trends in patient characteristics and outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries undergoing primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in the United States, 2006-2010. Results from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry. CIRCULATION. 130(10):845-53.
    PubMed ID: 25095884
  • Bartels C, Buhr K, Goldberg JW, Bell C, Visekruna M, Nekkanti S, Greenlee RT. (2014 April). Mortality and Cardiovascular Burden of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a US Population-based Cohort. JOURNAL OF RHEUMATOLOGY. 41(4):680-7.
    PubMed ID: 24532834
  • Magnan E, Palta M, Mahoney J, Pandhi N, Bolt D, Fink J,...Smith M [including Greenlee RT.] (2015 July). The relationship of individual comorbid chronic conditions to diabetes care quality. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care.. 3(1):e000080.
  • Kieke AL, Kieke BA, Kopitzke SL, McClure DL, Belongia EA, VanWormer JJ, Greenlee RT. (2015 December). Validation of Health Event Capture in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. Clinical Medicine & Research. 13(3-4):103-11.
    PubMed ID: 25487238
  • Rutter CM, Greenlee RT, Johnson E, Stark A, Weinmann S, Kamineni A,...Doubeni CA. (2015 March). Prevalence of colonoscopy before age 50. Prev Med. 72 :126-129.
    PubMed ID: 25565483
  • Smith DH, Johnson ES, Boudreau DM, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Fortmann SP, Greenlee RT,...Sidney S [including VanWormer JJ.] (2015 November). Comparative Effectiveness of Statin Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Am J Med. 128(11):1252.e1-1252.e11.
    PubMed ID: 26169887
  • Masoudi FA, Go AS, Magid DJ, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Gurwitz JH, Liu TI,...Greenlee RT [including Vidaillet H.] (2015 June). Age and sex differences in long-term outcomes following implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in contemporary clinical practice: findings from the Cardiovascular Research Network. J Am Heart Assoc. 4(6):e002005.
    PubMed ID: 26037083
  • Magnan EM, Bolt DM, Greenlee RT, Fink J, Smith MA. (2016 Nov 13). Stratifying Patients with Diabetes into Clinically Relevant Groups by Combination of Chronic Conditions to Identify Gaps in Quality of Care. Health Serv Res. 53(1):450-468.
    PubMed ID: 27861829
  • Buist DS, Field TS, Banegas MP, Clancy HA, Doria-Rose VP, Epstein MM,...Kushi LH [including Greenlee RT.] (2017 Jun). Training in the Conduct of Population-Based Multi-Site and Multi-Disciplinary Studies: the Cancer Research Network's Scholars Program. J Cancer Educ. 32(2):283-292.
    PubMed ID: 26490950