• Edward Belongia MD

  • Director, Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health

    • Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health
    • 1000 North Oak Ave. ML2 Marshfield, WI 54449


Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics-Residency, Madison
1978 to 1982:
MD, Michigan State University, East Lansing
1974 to 1978:
BS, Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Work Experience

2009 to Present:
Adjunct Professor - Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison
1995 to Present:
Senior Epidemiologist/Director, Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield
1990 to 1995:
Public Health Physician, STD Surveillance and Screening Unit, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis
1988 to 1990:
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Public Health Service


I am a physician and infectious disease epidemiologist who received training from CDC (EIS Program) and the Minnesota Department of Health. I currently lead an active infectious disease research program at the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation in Wisconsin. My current research focuses on influenza, other respiratory viruses, and vaccine preventable diseases. Since 2004, I have led a Marshfield research team that conducts annual CDC-funded studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness. Our research evaluates vaccine effectiveness for different age groups, virus subtypes, and products. We also conduct studies to assess the immune response to influenza vaccination in children and the effects of repeated vaccination. I am involved in vaccine safety research in collaboration with CDC and other sites in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. In addition to these observational studies, our research group is engaged in phase 2/3 clinical trials for investigational vaccines. My previous research areas have included antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antibiotic use, foodborne disease epidemiology, and tickborne disease epidemiology.

Research Interests

Infectious disease epidemiology
Vaccine effectiveness
Vaccine safety

Select Publications

  • Belongia EA, Gale CM, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Vandermause MF, Finkel MF, Kazmierczak JJ, Davis JP. Population-based incidence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in northwestern Wisconsin, 1997-99. J Infect Dis. 2001 Dec;184(11):1470-1474.
    PubMed ID: 11709792
  • Belongia EA, Naimi TS, Gale CM, Besser R. Antibiotic use and upper respiratory infections: a survey of knowledge, attitudes and experience in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Prev Med. 2002 Mar;34(3):346-352.
    PubMed ID: 11902851
  • Naleway AL, Belongia EA, Kazmierczak JJ, Greenlee RT, Davis JP. Lyme disease incidence in Wisconsin: a comparison of state-reported rates and rates from a population-based cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jun;155(12):1120-1127.
    PubMed ID: 12048226
  • Belongia EA, Chyou P, Greenlee RT, Perez-Perez G, Bibb WF, Devries EO. Diarrhea incidence and farm-related risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni antibodies among rural children. J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep;187(9):1460-1468.
    PubMed ID: 12717628
  • Belongia EA, Knobloch MJ, Kieke BA, Davis JP, Janette C, Besser RE. Impact of statewide program to promote appropriate antimicrobial drug use. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jun;11(6):912-920.
    PubMed ID: 15963287
  • Kieke AL, Borchardt MA, Kieke BA, Spencer SK, Vandermause MF, Smith KE, Jawahir SL, Belongia EA, Marshfield Enterococcal Study Group. Use of streptogramin growth promoters in poultry and isolation of streptogramin-resistant enterococcus faecium from humans. J Infect Dis. 2006 Nov;194(9):1200-1208.
    PubMed ID: 17041845
  • Croft DR, Knobloch MJ, Chyou P, Vanden Elzen D, Janette C, Davis J, Besser RE, Belongia EA. Impact of a child care educational intervention on parent knowledge about appropriate antibiotic use. WMJ. 2007 Apr;106(2):78-84.
  • Belongia EA, Kieke BA, Coleman LA, Donahue JG, Irving SA, Meece JK, Vandermause MF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Interim within-season estimate of the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine--Marshfield, Wisconsin, 2007-08 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Apr;57(15):393-8.
    PubMed ID: 18418344
  • Belongia EA, Kieke BA, Donahue JG, Greenlee RT, Balish A, Foust A, Lindstrom S, Shay DK, Marshfield Influenza Study Group. Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially with antigenic match from the 2004-2005 season to the 2006-2007 season. J Infect Dis. 2009 Jan;199(2):159-67.
    PubMed ID: 19086915
  • Donahue JG, Kieke BA, Yih WK, Berger NR, Mccauley JS, Baggs J, Zangwill KM, Baxter R, Eriksen E, Glanz JM, Hambidge SJ, Klein NP, Lewis EM, Marcy SM, Naleway AL, Nordin J, Ray P, Belongia EA, Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Varicella vaccination and ischemic stroke in children: is there an association? PEDIATRICS. 2009 Feb;123(2):e228-34.
    PubMed ID: 19171574
  • Belongia EA, Irving SA, Waring SC, Coleman LA, Meece JK, Vandermause MF, Lindstrom S, Kempf DL, Shay DK. Clinical Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes for Influenza A 2009 (H1N1), 2008-2009 (H1N1), and 2007-2008 (H3N2) Infections. JAMA. 2010 Sep;304(10):1091-8.
    PubMed ID: 20823435
  • Donahue JG, Kieke BA, Gargiullo PM, Jumaan AO, Berger NR, Mccauley JS, Belongia EA. Herpes Zoster and Exposure to the Varicella Zoster Virus in an Era of Varicella Vaccination. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 2010 Jun;100(6):1116-22.
    PubMed ID: 20075320
  • Belongia EA, Irving SA, Shui IM, Kulldorff M, Lewis E, Lin R, Lieu TA, Weintraub E, Yih WK, Li R, Baggs J, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Investigation Group. Real-Time Surveillance to Assess Risk of Intussusception and Other Adverse Events After Pentavalent, Bovine-Derived Rotavirus Vaccine. PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL. 2010 Jan;29(1):1-5.
    PubMed ID: 19907356
  • Griffin MR, Monto A, Belongia EA, Treanor JJ, Chen Q, Talbot HK, Ohmit SE, Coleman LA, Lofthus G, Petrie JG, Meece JK, Hall CB, Williams JV, Garguillo P, Berman L, Shay DK, for the U.S. Flu-VE Network. Effectiveness of Non-Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A Vaccines for Preventing Pandemic Influenza Acute Respiratory Illness Visits in 4 U.S. Communities. PLoS One. 2011 Aug;6(8):e23085.
    PubMed ID: 21857999
  • Belongia EA, Kieke BA, Donahue JG, Coleman LA, Irving SA, Meece JK, Vandermause MF, Lindstrom S, Garguillo P, Shay DK. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in Wisconsin during the 2007-08 season: Comparison of interim and final results. VACCINE. 2011 Jul;29(38):6558-63.
    PubMed ID: 21767593
  • Osterholm MT, Kelley NS, Sommer A, Belongia EA. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;12(1):36-44.
    PubMed ID: 22032844
  • Irving SA, Patel DC, Kieke BA, Donahue JG, Vandermause MF, Shay DK, Belongia EA. Comparison of clinical features and outcomes of medically attended influenza A and influenza B in a defined population over four seasons: 2004-2005 through 2007-2008. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2012 Jan;6(1):37-43.
    PubMed ID: 21668663
  • Greene SK, Rett M, Weintraub ES, Li L, Yin R, Amato AA, Ho D, Sheikh S, Fireman BH, Daley MF, Belongia EA, Jacobsen S, Baxter R, Lieu T, Kulldorff M, Vellozzi C, Lee GM. Risk of confirmed Guillain-Barre syndrome following receipt of monovalent inactivated influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, 2009-2010. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2012 Jun;175(11):1100-9.
    PubMed ID: 22582210
  • Treanor JJ, Talbot HK, Ohmit SE, Coleman LA, Thompson M, Cheng P, Petrie JG, Lofthus G, Meece JK, Williams JV, Berman L, Breese Hall C, Monto A, Griffin MR, Belongia EA, Shay DK, US Flu-VE Network. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in the United States during a season with circulation of all three vaccine strains. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2012 Oct;55(7):951-9.
    PubMed ID: 22843783
  • Shui IM, Baggs J, Patel M, Parashar UD, Rett M, Belongia EA, Hambidge SJ, Glanz JM, Klein NP, Weintraub E. Risk of intussusception following administration of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in US infants. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 2012 Feb;307(6):598-604.
    PubMed ID: 22318281
  • Talbot HK, Coleman LA, Crimin K, Zhu Y, Rock M, Meece JK, Shay DK, Belongia EA, Griffin MR. Association between obesity and vulnerability and serologic response to influenza vaccination in older adults. VACCINE. 2012 Jun;30(26):3937-43.
    PubMed ID: 22484350
  • Ferdinands JM, Gargiullo P, Haber M, Moore M, Belongia EA, Shay DK. Inactivated influenza vaccines for prevention of community-acquired pneumonia: the limits of using nonspecific outcomes in vaccine effectiveness studies. Epidemiology.. 2013 Jul;24(4):530-7.
    PubMed ID: 23732734
  • Kjos SA, Irving SA, Meece JK, Belongia EA. Elementary school-based influenza vaccination: evaluating impact on respiratory illness absenteeism and laboratory-confirmed influenza. PLoS One. 2013 Aug;8(8):e72243.
    PubMed ID: 23991071
  • Coleman LA, Waring SC, Irving SA, Vandermause MF, Shay DK, Belongia EA. Evaluation of obesity as an independent risk factor for medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2013 Mar;7(2):160-7.
    PubMed ID: 22583620
  • Sundaram ME, McClure DL, VanWormer JJ, Friedrich TC, Meece JK, Belongia EA. Influenza Vaccination is Not Associated with Detection of Non-Influenza Respiratory Viruses in Seasonal Studies of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2013 Sep;57(6):789-93.
    PubMed ID: 23748138
  • Bateman A, Kieke BA, Irving SA, Meece JK, Shay DK, Belongia EA. Effectiveness of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in Wisconsin during the 2010-2011 influenza season. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2013 Apr;207(8):1262-9.
    PubMed ID: 23341536
  • Irving SA, Kieke BA, Donahue JG, Mascola MA, Baggs J, DeStefano F, Cheetham T, Jackson L, Naleway AL, Glanz J, Nordin JD, Belongia EA, for the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Spontaneous Abortion. OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 2013 Jan;121(1):159-165.
    PubMed ID: 23262941
  • Flannery B, Thaker S, Clippard J, Monto A, Ohmit SE, Zimmerman R, Nowalk M, Gaglani M, Jackson M, Jackson L, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Berman L, Foust A, Sessions W, Spencer S, Fry A, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC. Interim estimates of 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness - United States, february 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Feb;63(7):137-42.
    PubMed ID: 24553196
  • McLean (Nguyen) HQ, Thompson MG, Sundaram ME, Meece JK, McClure DL, Friedrich T, Belongia EA. Impact of Repeated Vaccination on Vaccine Effectiveness Against Influenza A(H3N2) and B During 8 Seasons. Clin Infect Dis.. 2014 Nov;59(10):1375-85.
    PubMed ID: 25270645
  • Jackson ML, Peterson D, Nelson JC, Greene SK, Jacobsen SJ, Belongia EA, Baxter R, Jackson LA. Using winter 2009-2010 to assess the accuracy of methods which estimate influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Epidemiol Infect.. 2014 Dec;12 :1-9.
    PubMed ID: 25496703
  • McNeil MM, Gee J, Weintraub E, Belongia EA, Lee GM, Glanz JM, Nordin JD, Klein NP, Baxter R, Naleway AL, Jackson L, Omer S, Jacobsen SJ, DeStefano F. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety. VACCINE. 2014 Sep;32(42):5390-8.
    PubMed ID: 25108215
  • Ohmit SE, Thompson MG, Petrie JG, Thaker S, Jackson ML, Belongia EA, Zimmerman R, Gaglani M, Lamerato L, Spencer SM, Jackson L, Meece JK, Nowalk M, Song J, Zervos MJ, Cheng P, Rinaldo CR, Clipper L, Shay DK, Piedra PA, Monto A. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the 2011-2012 season: protection against each circulating virus and the effect of prior vaccination on estimates. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;58(3):319-27.
    PubMed ID: 24235265
  • VanWormer JJ, Sundaram ME, Meece JK, Belongia EA. A cross-sectional analysis of symptom severity in adults with influenza and other acute respiratory illness in the outpatient setting. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 May;14(1):231.
    PubMed ID: 24884932
  • Sundaram ME, Meece JK, Sifakis F, Gasser R, Belongia EA. Medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infections in adults aged >=50 years: clinical characteristics and outcomes. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2014 Feb;58(3):342-9.
    PubMed ID: 24265361
  • Weintraub ES, Baggs J, Duffy J, Vellozzi C, Belongia EA, Irving SA, Klein NP, Glanz JM, Jacobsen SJ, Naleway A, Jackson LA, DeStefano F. Risk of Intussusception after Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. 2014 Feb;370(6):513-9.
    PubMed ID: 24422678
  • McLean HQ, Meece JK, Belongia EA. Influenza vaccination and risk of hospitalization among adults with laboratory confirmed influenza illness. VACCINE. 2014 Jan;32(4):453-7.
    PubMed ID: 24291201
  • McClure DL, Kieke BA, Sundaram ME, Simpson M, Meece JK, Sifakis F, Gasser R, Belongia EA. Seasonal incidence of medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infection in a community cohort of adults =50 years old. PLoS One. 2014 Jul;9(7):e102586.
    PubMed ID: 25025344
  • Abrams JY, Weintraub E, Baggs J, McCarthy NL, Schonberger LB, Lee GM, Klein NP, Belongia EA, Jackson ML, Naleway A, Nordin JD. Childhood vaccines and Kawasaki disease, Vaccine Safety Datalink, 1996-2006. VACCINE. 2015 Jan;33(2):382-7.
    PubMed ID: 25444786
  • Talbot HK, Coleman LA, Zhu Y, Spencer SK, Thompson M, Cheng P, Sundaram ME, Belongia EA, Griffin MR. Factors associated with maintenance of antibody responses to influenza vaccine in older, community-dwelling adults. BMC Infect Dis.. 2015 Apr;15(1):195.
    PubMed ID: 25903659
  • Havers F, Flannery B, Clippard J, Gaglani M, Zimmerman R, Jackson LA, Petrie JG, McLean HQ, Nowalk M, Jackson ML, Monto A, Belongia EA, Eng HF, Lamerato L, Campbell AP, Fry A. Use of influenza antiviral medications among outpatients at high risk for influenza-associated complications during the 2013-14 influenza season. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;60(11):1677-80.
    PubMed ID: 25722198
  • McLean HQ, Thompson MG, Sundaram ME, Kieke BA, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Piedra PA, Zimmerman R, Nowalk M, Raviotta JM, Jackson ML, Jackson L, Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Monto A, Meece JK, Thaker S, Thaker S, Clippard J, Spencer SM, Fry A, Belongia EA. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States During 2012-13: Variable Protection by Age and Virus Type. JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2015 May;211(10):1529-40.
    PubMed ID: 25406334
  • Klein NP, Lewis E, Fireman B, Hambridge SJ, Naleway A, Nelson JC, Belongia EA, Nordin J, Hechter R, Weintraub E, Baxter R. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in 1-year-old children. PEDIATRICS. 2015 Feb;135(2):e321-9.
    PubMed ID: 25560438
  • Belongia EA, Sundaram ME, McClure DL, Meece JK, Ferdinands J, VanWormer JJ. Waning vaccine protection against influenza A (H3N2) illness in children and older adults during a single season. VACCINE. 2015 Jan;33(1):246-51.
    PubMed ID: 24962752
  • Caspard H, Gaglani M, Clipper L, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Griffin MR, Talbot HK, Poehling KA, Peters TR, Veney N, Ambrose CS. Effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine and inactivated influenza vaccine in children 2-17 years of age in 2013-2014 in the United States. VACCINE. 2016 Jan 14;34(1):77-82.
    PubMed ID: 26589519