• Tonia Carter PhD

  • Assoc. Research Scientist-Genetics

    • MCRI - MCRI-Precision Med Research
    • 1000 North Oak Ave. MLR Marshfield, WI 54449
    • (715) 221-6467


PhD, Epidemiology, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York
MS, Epidomiology, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York
MPhil, Biochemistry, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad
BSc, Biochemistry, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad

Work Experience

2019 to Present:
Associate Research Scientist - Genetics, Center for Precision Medicine Research, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, Wisconsin
2012 to 2019:
Project Scientist, Center for Human Genetics, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, Wisconsin
2007 to 2011:
Postdoctoral Fellow, Eunice Kenndy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland


Dr. Carter is an investigator conducting research on the human genetics of disease. She conceives and designs research studies, develops research proposals, oversees the conduct of research studies, plans and performs data analysis, and reports on her research results in the scientific literature and at scientific conferences. She also collaborates with other investigators involved in genetic studies of chronic and infectious diseases and assists with applying statistical and bioinformatics methods to data analysis in these collaborative studies.

Research Interests

Dr. Carter’s main research interest is the mechanisms of birth defects and she uses human genetics approaches to investigate how potentially damaging genetic variation can lead to birth defects. She is interested in understanding how single nucleotide variants and structural variants elicit functional effects that lead to birth defects and in identifying molecular signaling pathways important in specific birth defects. She is also interested in exploring how the disruption of genomic regulatory elements active during embryonic development leads to birth defects, mechanisms underlying incomplete penetrance of genetic variants in birth defects, and methods of assessing interactions between genetic and non-genetic risk factors for birth defects.

Select Publications

  • Koppel R, Druschel C, Carter TC, Goldberg B, Mehta P, Talwar R, Bierman F. (2003 March). Effectiveness of pulse oximetry screening for congenital heart disease in asymptomatic newborns. PEDIATRICS. 111(3):451-5.
    PubMed ID: 12612220
  • Cleves M, Malik S, Yang S, Carter TC, Hobbs C. (2008 June). Maternal urinary tract infections and selected cardiovascular malformations. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 82(6):464-73.
    PubMed ID: 18452156
  • Carter TC, Druschel C, Romitti P, Bell E, Werler M, Mitchell A, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. (2008 February). Antifungal drugs and the risk of selected birth defects. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY. 198(2):191.
    PubMed ID: 18226621
  • Carter TC, Molloy A, Pangilinan F, Troendle J, Kirke P, Conley M,...Mills J. (2010 February). Testing reported associations of genetic risk factors for oral clefts in a large Irish study population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 88(2):84-93.
    PubMed ID: 19937600
  • Mills J, Troendle J, Conley M, Carter TC, Druschel C. (2010 June). Maternal obesity and congenital heart defects: a population-based study. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 91(6):1543-9.
    PubMed ID: 20375192
  • Carter TC, Olney R, Mitchell A, Romitti P, Bell E, Druschel C, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. (2011 February). Maternal self-reported genital tract infections during pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 91(2):108-16.
    PubMed ID: 21319278
  • Carter TC, Pangilinan F, Troendle J, Molloy A, VanderMeer J, Mitchell A,...Mills J. (2011 January). Evaluation of 64 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms as risk factors for neural tube defects in a large Irish study population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 155A(1):14-21.
    PubMed ID: 21204206
  • Mills J, Carter TC, Scott J, Troendle J, Gibney E, Shane B,...Molloy A. (2011 August). Do high blood folate concentrations exacerbate metabolic abnormalities in people with low vitamin B-12 status? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 94(2):495-500.
    PubMed ID: 21653798
  • Mills J, Carter TC, Kay D, Browne M, Brody L, Liu AH,...Druschel C. (2012 May). Folate and vitamin B12-related genes and risk for omphalocele. HUMAN GENETICS. 131(5):739-46.
    PubMed ID: 22116453
  • Browne ML, Carter TC, Kay DM, Kuehn D, Brody LC, Romitti PA,...Mills JL. (2012 October). Evaluation of genes involved in limb development, angiogenesis, and coagulation as risk factors for congenital limb deficiencies. Am J Med Genet A. 158A(10):2463-72.
    PubMed ID: 22965740
  • Carter TC, Kay DM, Browne ML, Liu A, Romitti PA, Kuehn D,...Mills JL. (2012 August). Hirschsprung's disease and variants in genes that regulate enteric neural crest cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. J. Hum. Genet.. 57(8):485-93.
    PubMed ID: 22648184
  • Carter TC, Kay DM, Browne ML, Liu A, Romitti PA, Kuehn D,...Mills JL. (2013 January). Anorectal atresia and variants at predicted regulatory sites in candidate genes. Ann. Hum. Genet.. 77(1):31-46.
    PubMed ID: 23127126
  • Schrodi SJ, Mukherjee S, Shan Y, Tromp G, Sninsky JJ, Callear AP,...Weeks DE [including Carter TC, Ye Z, Brilliant MH.] (2014 June). Genetic-based prediction of disease traits: prediction is very difficult, especially about the future(†). Front Genet. 5 :162.
    PubMed ID: 24917882
  • Ye Z, Vasco DA, Carter TC, Brilliant MH, Schrodi SJ, Shukla SK. (2014 May). Genome wide association study of SNP-, gene-, and pathway-based approaches to identify genes influencing susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infections. Front Genet. 5 :125.
    PubMed ID: 24847357
  • Fan R, Wang Y, Mills JL, Carter TC, Lobach I, Wilson AF,...Xiong M. (2014 November). Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies. Genet Epidemiol. 38(7):622-637.
    PubMed ID: 25203683
  • Carter TC, Pangilinan F, Molloy AM, Fan R, Wang Y, Shane B,...Mills JL. (2015 July). Common Variants at Putative Regulatory Sites of the Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Influence Circulating Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Concentration in Healthy Adults. J Nutr. 145(7):1386-93.
    PubMed ID: 25972531
  • Howley MM, Carter TC, Browne ML, Romitti PA, Cunniff CM, Druschel CM. (2016 May 27). Fluconazole use and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 214(5):657.
    PubMed ID: 26640069
  • Carter TC, He MM. Challenges of Identifying Clinically Actionable Genetic Variants for Precision Medicine. J Healthc Eng. 2016 April 6; 2016 doi: 10.1155/2016/3617572 . PMCID: PMC4955563 .
    PubMed ID: 27195526
  • Carter TC, Rein D, Padberg I, Peter E, Rennefahrt U, David DE,...Schrodi SJ [including McManus V, Stefanski E.] (2016 September). Validation of a metabolite panel for early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Metab. Clin. Exp.. 65(9):1399-408.
    PubMed ID: 27506746
  • Ailes EC, Gilboa SM, Gill SK, Broussard CS, Crider KS, Berry RJ,...Reefhuis J [including Carter TC.] (2016 November). Association between antibiotic use among pregnant women with urinary tract infections in the first trimester and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study 1997 to 2011. Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.. 106(11):940-949.
    PubMed ID: 27891788
  • VanderMeer JE, Carter TC, Pangilinan F, Mitchell A, Kurnat-Thoma E, Kirke PN,...Brody LC. (2016 April). Evaluation of proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1) polymorphisms as risk factors for neural tube defects and oral clefts. Am J Med Genet A. 170A(4):1007-16.
    PubMed ID: 26789141
  • Carter TC, Sicko RJ, Kay DM, Browne ML, Romitti PA, Edmunds ZL,...Mills JL. Copy-number variants and candidate gene mutations in isolated split hand/foot malformation. J. Hum. Genet.. 2017 October; 2017 Oct(62(10)):877-884. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2017.56. PMCID: PMC5612852.
    PubMed ID: 28539665
  • Carter TC, Hebbring SJ, Liu J, Mosley JD, Shaffer CM, Ivacic LC,...Belongia EA [including Kopitzke S, Stefanski EL, Strenn R, Sundaram ME, Meece J, Brilliant MH.] Pilot screening study of targeted genetic polymorphisms for association with seasonal influenza hospital admission. J. Med. Virol.. 2018 March; 2018 Mar(90(3)):436-446. doi: 10.1002/jmv.24975. PMCID: PMC5760323.
    PubMed ID: 29053189
  • Carter TC, Medina-Flores R, Lawler BE. Glioblastoma Treatment with Temozolomide and Bevacizumab and Overall Survival in a Rural Tertiary Healthcare Practice. Biomed Res Int. 2018 December; 2018 :6204676. doi: doi: 10.1155/2018/6204676.
    PubMed ID: 30687753
  • Jenkins MM, Almli LM, Pangilinan F, Chong JX, Blue EE, Shapira SK,...Lupo PJ [including Carter TC.] Exome sequencing of family trios from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Tapping into a rich resource of genetic and environmental data. [published online ahead of print 2019 July 21]. Birth Defects Res. 2019 Dec 1(111(20)):1618-1632. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1554. PMCID: PMC6889076.
    PubMed ID: 31328417
  • Hansen KE, Johnson MG, Carter TC, Mayer J, Keuler NS, Blank RD. The -839(A/C) Polymorphism in the ECE1 Isoform b Promoter Associates With Osteoporosis and Fractures. J Endocr Soc. 2019 November 1;2019 Jul 15(3(11)):2041-2050. doi: 10.1210/js.2019-00057 . PMCID: PMC6795020.
    PubMed ID: 31637345
  • Shukla SK, Carter TC, Ye Z, Pantrangi M, Rose WE. Modeling of Effective Antimicrobials to Reduce Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression Using a Two-Compartment Hollow Fiber Infection Model. Toxins (Basel). 2020 January 22; 2020 Jan 22(12(2)):69. doi: 10.3390/toxins12020069. PMCID: PMC7076779 .
    PubMed ID: 31979087
  • Carter T, Ye Z, Ivacic L, Budi N, Rose W, Shukla SK. Association of Variants in Selected Genes Mediating Host Immune Response With Duration of Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia. Genes Immun. 2020 August 21;2020 Aug(21(4)):240-248. doi: 10.1038/s41435-020-0101-0. PMCID: PMC7449870.
    PubMed ID: 32507857
  • Buechler SA, Stephens MT, Hummon AB, Ludwig K, Cannon E, Carter TC,...Badve SS. ColoType: a forty gene signature for consensus molecular subtyping of colorectal cancer tumors using whole-genome assay or targeted RNA-sequencing. Sci Rep. 2020 July 21;2020 Jul 21(10(1)):12123. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69083-y. PMCID: PMC7374173.
    PubMed ID: 32694712
  • Yerukala Sathipati S, Tsai MJ, Carter T, Allaire P, Shukla SK, Beheshti A, Ho SY. Survival estimation in patients with stomach and esophageal carcinoma using miRNA expression profiles. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. 2022 August 20;20(2022):4490-4500. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.08.025. PMCID: PMC9421182.
    PubMed ID: 36051876
  • Yerukala Sathipati S, Tsai MJ, Carter TC, Sanjay SK, Ho SY. SPIKES: Identification of physicochemical properties of spike proteins across diverse host species of SARS-CoV-2. STAR Protocols. 2022 September;3(3):101460. doi: 10.1016/j.xpro.2022.101460. PMCID: PMC9127179.
    PubMed ID: 35726315
  • Yerukala Sathipati S, Aimalla N, Tsai MJ, Carter T, Jeong S, Wen Z,...Ho SY [including Shukla SK.] Prognostic microRNA signature for estimating survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2023 December 2;44(8-9):650-661. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgad062.
    PubMed ID: 37701974
  • Haas KM, McGregor MJ, Bouhaddou M, Polacco BJ, Kim EY, Nguyen TT,...Carter, TC. Proteomic and genetic analyses of influenza A viruses identify pan-viral host targets. Nat Commun. 2023 September 27;14(1):6030. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-41442-z. PMCID: PMC10533562.
    PubMed ID: 37758692
  • Carter T, Valenzuela RK, Yerukala Sathipati S, Medina-Flores R. Gene signatures associated with prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in glioblastoma treated with temozolomide. Frontiers in Genetics. 2023 December 18;14(2023). doi: 10.3389/fgene.2023.1320789. PMCID: PMC10802164.
    PubMed ID: 38259614