• Anna Schotthoefer PhD

  • Project Scientist II, PHD

    • MCRI - MCRI-Integr Resrch and Dev Lab
    • 1000 North Oak Ave. 2R3 Marshfield, WI 54449


2010 to 2012:
Integrated Research and Development Laboratory, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield
2007 to 2010:
Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Divison of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Fort Collins
2003 to 2005:
Department of Pathobiology, Division of Parasitology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana
PhD, Department of Pathobiology, Division of Parasitology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana
MS, Biology Department, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem
BS, Department of Biology, Cornell Univerisity, Ithaca

Work Experience

2011 to 2011:
Preceptor, Masters of Public Health Program, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison
2006 to 2010:
Adjunct Faculty and Instructor, Department of Biology, Metropolitan State College of Denver, Denver
2005 to 2006:
Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana
1994 to 1995:
Lab Technician Senior, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point
1993 to 1994:
Lab Technician, Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory, Rutgers University, Port Norris


Dr. Schotthoefer's research focuses on the epidemiology, ecology and clinical manifestations of tick-borne diseases, including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. She has interests in better understanding the interactions between environmental, genetic, and human behavioral risk factors associated with the diseases in Wisconsin, and in improving the clinical diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. She has helped develop molecular tools that may be used for more accurate and timely clinical diagnoses of the diseases and for learning more about the genetic strains of the pathogens that are found in the Midwest. Current efforts are aimed at analyzing data captured in the electronic health record to improve our understanding of the clinical symptoms and outcomes associated with the diseases and to define better guidelines for recognizing and treating the diseases.

Research Interests

epidemiology and ecology of tick-borne dieases in Wisconsin; applying analytical methods to clinical data in the electronic health record to improve diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases; genetic analysis of disease pathogens

Select Publications

  • Esch GW, Wetzel EJ, Zelmer DA, Schotthoefer AM. (1997). Long-term changes in parasite population and community structure: a case history. American Midland Naturalist. 137 :369-87.
  • Ford SE, Schotthoefer AM, Spruck C. (1999). In vivo dynamics of the microparasite Perkinsus marinus during progression and regression of infections in Eastern oysters. Journal of Parasitology. 85 :273-82.
  • Schoff PK, Johnson CM, Schotthoefer AM, murphy JE, Lieske C, Cole RA,...Beasley VR. (2003). Prevalence of skeletal and eye malformations in frogs from north-central United States: estimation based on collections from randomly selected sites. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 39 :510-21.
  • Schotthoefer AM, Koehler AV, Meteyer CU, Cole RA. (2003). Influence of Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infections on limb development and survival of Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): effects of host-stage and parasite exposure level. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 81 :1144-53.
  • Schotthoefer AM, Cole RA, Beasley VR. (2003). Relationship of tadpole stage to location of echinostome cercariae encystment and the consequences for tadpole survival. Journal of Parasitology. 89 :475-82.
  • Schotthoefer AM, Labak KM, Beasley VR. (2007). Ribeiroia ondatrae cercariae are consumed by aquatic invertebrate predators. J Parasitol. 93(5):1240-3.
    PubMed ID: 18163369
  • Eisen RJ, Holmes AM, Schotthoefer AM. (2008). Demonstration of early phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by the mouse flea, Aetheca wagneri, and implications for the role of deer mice as enzootic reservoirs J Medical Entomology. 45 :1160-64.
  • Rohr JR, Schotthoefer AM, Raffel TR, Carrick HJ, Halstead N, Hoverman JT,...Beasley R. (2008). Agrochemicals increase trematode infections in a declining amphibian species. NATURE. 455 :1235-38.
  • Hamer GL, Walker ED, Brawn JD, Loss SR, Ruiz MO, Goldberg TL,...Kitron UD. (2008). Rapid amplification of West Nile virus: the role of hatch year birds. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 8(1):57-67.
    PubMed ID: 18237262
  • Lowell JL, Eisen RJ, Schotthoefer AM, Xiaocheng L, Montenieri JA, Tanda D,...Gage KL. (2009). Colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans. J Vector Ecol. 34 :22-31.
    PubMed ID: 20836802
  • Girard YA, Travinsky B, Schotthoefer AM, Fedorova N, Eisen RJ, Eisen L,...Lane RS. (2009). Population structure of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in northern California. Appl Environ Microbiol. 75(22):7243-7252.
    PubMed ID: 19783741
  • Schotthoefer AM, Bolek MG, Cole RA, Beasley VR. (2009). Parasites of the mink frog (Rana septentrionalis) from Minnesota. Comparative Parasitology. 76 :240-46.
  • Schotthoefer AM, Gage KL. (2009). Climate impacts on fleas and rodents: implications for future human plague risk in the western United States. Public Health Journal. 20 :46-51.
  • Church C, Neill A, Schotthoefer AM. (2010 February). Intestinal infections in humans in the Rocky Mountain region, United States. J Parasitol.. 96(1):194-6.
    PubMed ID: 19807196
  • Vetter SM, Eisen RJ, Schotthoefer AM, Montenieri JA, Holmes JL, Bobrov AG,...Gage KL. (2010 July). Biofilm formation is not required for early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis. Microbiology. 156(Pt 7):2216-25.
    PubMed ID: 20395271
  • Schotthoefer AM, Bearden SW, Holmes JL, Vetter SM, Montenieri JA, Williams S,...Gage KL. (2011 September). Effects of temperature on the transmission of Yersinia Pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla Cheopis, in the late phase period. Parasit Vectors. 4 :191.
    PubMed ID: 21958555
  • Schotthoefer AM, Rohr JR, Cole RA, Koehler AV, Johnson CM, Johnson LB, Beasley VR. (2011 June). Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors. ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS. 21(4):1257-71.
    PubMed ID: 21774428
  • Schotthoefer AM, Bearden SW, Vetter SM, Holmes J, Montenieri JA, Graham C,...Gage KL. (2011 March). Effects of temperature on early-phase transmission of Yersina pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY. 48(2):411-7.
    PubMed ID: 21485382
  • Schotthoefer AM, Eisen RJ, Kugeler KJ, Ettestad P, Reynolds PJ, Brown T,...Gage KL. (2012 July). Changing socioeconomic indicators of human plague, New Mexico, USA. Emerging Infect Dis. 18(7):1151-4.
    PubMed ID: 22709463
  • Schotthoefer AM, Meece JK, Ivacic LC, Bertz PD, Zhang KQi, Weiler T,...Fritsche TR [including Uphoff TS.] (2013 July). Comparison of a real-time PCR Method with serology and blood smear analysis for diagnosis of human anaplasmosis:importance of Infection time course for optimal test utilization. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY. 51(7):2147-53.
    PubMed ID: 23637292
  • Williams SK, Schotthoefer AM, Montenieri JA, Holmes JL, Vetter SM, Gage KL, Bearden SW. (2013 July). Effects of low-temperature flea maintenance on the transmission of Yersinia pestis by Oropsylla montana. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 13(7):468-78.
    PubMed ID: 23590319
  • Schotthoefer AM, Meece JK, Fritsche TR. (2014 June). A clinical, diagnostic, and ecologic perspective on human anaplasmosis in the Upper Midwest. WMJ. 113(3):107-14; quiz 115.
    PubMed ID: 25118439
  • Rohr JR, Civitello DJ, Crumrine PW, Halstead N, Miller AD, Schotthoefer AM,...Beasley VR. (2015 March). Predator diversity, intraguild predation, and indirect effects drive parasite transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.. 112(10):3008-13.
    PubMed ID: 25713379
  • Schotthoefer AM, Frost HM. (2015 December). Ecology and Epidemiology of Lyme Borreliosis. Clin Lab Med. 35(4):723-43.
    PubMed ID: 26593254
  • Levin AE, Williamson PC, Bloch EM, Clifford J, Cyrus S, Shaz BH,...Busch MP [including Schotthoefer AM, Fritsche TR.] (2016 May 25). Serologic screening of United States blood donors for Babesia microti using an investigational enzyme immunoassay. Transfusion.
    PubMed ID: 27224258
  • Mareedu N, Schotthoefer AM, Tompkins J, Hall MC, Fritsche TR, Frost HM. (2017 July 10). Risk Factors for Severe Infection, Hospitalization, and Prolonged Antimicrobial Therapy in Patients with Babesiosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg.
    PubMed ID: 28722598
  • Schotthoefer AM, Hall MC, Vittala S, Bajwa R, Frost HM. (2017 May 16). Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Children With Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc.
    PubMed ID: 28520981
  • Snyder JL, Giese H, Bandoski-Gralinski C, Townsend J, Jacobson BE, Shivers R,...Lowery TJ [including Schotthoefer AM, Fritsche TR, Green C.] (2017 August). T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay-Based Direct Detection of Three Lyme Disease-Related Borrelia Species in Whole-Blood Samples. J Clin Microbiol. 55(8):2453-2461.
    PubMed ID: 28566314
  • Schotthoefer AM, Schrodi SJ, Meece JK, Fritsche TR, Shukla SK. (2017). Pro-inflammatory immune responses are associated with clinical signs and symptoms of human anaplasmosis. PLoS One. 12(6):e0179655.
    PubMed ID: 28628633
  • Schotthoefer A, Stinebaugh K, Martin M, Munoz-Zanzi C. Tickborne disease awareness and protective practices among U.S. Forest Service employees from the upper Midwest, USA. BMC Public Health. 2020 October 20; 20(1):1575. PMCID: PMC7574197.
    PubMed ID: 33081728
  • Gardner AM, Pawlikowski NC, Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Miller JR, Schotthoefer AM,...Allan BF. Landscape features predict the current and forecast the future geographic spread of Lyme disease. [published online ahead of print 2020 December 23]. Proc Biol Sci. 287(1941):20202278. PMCID: PMC7779494.
    PubMed ID: 33352074
  • Rau A, Munoz-Zanzi C, Schotthoefer AM, Oliver JD, Berman JD. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Tick-Borne Diseases in North-Central Wisconsin from 2000-2016. [published online ahead of print 2020 July 15]. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17(14) PMCID: PMC7400118.
    PubMed ID: 32679849
  • Schotthoefer AM, Green CB, Dempsey G, Horn EJ. The Spectrum of Erythema Migrans in Early Lyme Disease: Can We Improve Its Recognition? Cureus. 2022 October 25;14(10):e30673. doi: 10.7759/cureus.30673. PMCID: PMC9687974.
    PubMed ID: 36439577